Dr Lindsay Murray

Deputy Head of Department, Senior Lecturer

Lindsay teaches Animal Psychology, Individual Differences in Personality, and Research Methods and Skills, as well as supervising project work at undergraduate and postgraduate levels.  At the North of England Zoological Society (Chester Zoo), she has studied the UK's largest group of chimpanzees since 1992.


Lindsay followed a BSc in Psychology at Lancaster University with a PhD in Biological Anthropology at Cambridge University and specializes in primatology and personality. In addition to being a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, she is also a member of a number of other organisations including the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour (ASAB) and the Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB).


Lindsay is Deputy Head of Department having previously held the roles of Deputy Undergraduate Programme Leader, Level 5 Year Tutor and Assessment Officer.

Email: l.murray@chester.ac.uk



Lindsay teaches across all levels specifically in Animal Psychology (PS6022), Psychological Research Methods & Skills (PS4005) and Individual Differences for Conversion (PS7314), as well as supervising undergraduate and postgraduate dissertations.


Lindsay's research interests lie primarily in the discipline of primatology, particularly in the areas of personality, self-awareness and social behaviour in great apes. At the North of England Zoological Society (Chester Zoo) she has studied the UK's largest group of chimpanzees since 1992 and is continuing a longitudinal exploration of personality traits and their ability to predict behaviour. She has also investigated whether gorillas can recognize themselves on the video equivalent of a mirror and is currently collaborating with former colleague Colleen Schaffner on an investigation into the self-recognition capacity of spider monkeys.

She also has post-doctoral experience working with children in Cambridge University's Visual Development Unit. As well as contributing articles and reviews to the popular press Lindsay has given research papers at Cambridge, Oxford, Durham, Chester and Belfast and was an invited speaker at the International Primatological Congress (Madison USA) in 1996, at the Linnean Society Conference (Chester) in 1997 and at the Scottish Primate Research Group's International Symposium on Animal Personality (Stirling) in 2005. She co-organized the PSGB Spring Meeting held here at Chester and also co-organized a symposium on primate personality at the American Society of Primatologists' Conference (Oregon, USA) in 2005.  More recently, she has also extended her range of psychological research interests to include traditional and cyber bullying and how personality relates to the use of Facebook.

Published work

Boulton, M. J., Lloyd, J., Murray, L. & Berry, S. (under review). Offline victims become online bullies and the effect is moderated by social anxiety: Converging longitudinal evidence from adolescents and retrospective evidence from adults.  Aggressive Behavior.

Murray, L. E. (2011). Predicting primate behavior from personality ratings. In A. Weiss, J. King & L. Murray (Eds.), Personality and Temperament in Nonhuman Primates (pp. 129-167). New York: Springer.

Weiss, A., King, J., & Murray, L. (2011, Eds.). Personality and Temperament in Nonhuman Primates. New York: Springer.

Royle, S. & Murray, L.E. (2010). The stability of personality in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Research News, 11 (3), 11-12.

Boulton, M., Chau, C., Whitehand, C., Amataya, K. & Murray, L. (2009). Concurrent and short-term longitudinal associations between peer victimization and school and recess liking during middle childhood. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 207-22.

Boulton, M., Trueman, M. & Murray, L. (2008). Associations between peer victimization, fear of future victimization and disrupted concentration on class work among junior school pupils. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 473-489

James, R., & Murray, L. (2006). Food and grooming exchanges in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and the five factor model of personality. Zoo Research News, 76.

Simpson, C., & Murray, L. (2006). Measuring personality in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) via a new Short Orangutan Personality Inventory (SOPI). Zoo Research News, 7, 7-8.

Murray, L. E. (2005). Primate personality: Use of rating scales to assess individual differences in gorillas (G. g. gorilla) and pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus). Primate Eye, 8, 612.

Murray, L. E. (2005). Video-mediated behaviour in gorillas: Evidence of self-recognition in a juvenile male? Primate Eye, 8, 621.

Murray, L. E. (2005). Personality types in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Another ‘Big 5'. American Journal of Primatology, 66, 53-54.

Murray, L. E., Weiss, A., & Gosling, S. D. (2005). Primate personality: Past present and progress? American Journal of Primatology, 66, 123.

Murray, L. E. (2005). Predicting behaviour from personality trait ratings in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology, 66, 125.

Murray, L. E. (2002). Individual differences in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) personality and their implications for the evolution of mind. In: C. Harcourt & B. Sherwood (Eds.). New perspectives in primate evolution & behaviour. Westbury Publishing. pp. 201-232.

Murray, L. E. (1999). Comparative personality assessment: Measurement of individual differences in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Proceedings of the British Psychological Society, 7(2), 133.

Murray, L. E. (1998). The effects of group structure and rearing strategy on personality in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Chester London and Twycross Zoos. International Zoo Yearbook, 36, 97-108.

Murray, L. E. (1997). Heritability of personality: Familial similarities among chimpanzees. Primate Eye, 62, 11.

Murray, L. E. (1997). Book review of McGrew W.C. Marchant L.F. & Nishida T. (Eds). Great ape societies. Cambridge University Press. In: BBC Wildlife, 15(2), 74-75.

Murray, L. E. (1997). Book review of ‘Poor model man: Experimenting on chimpanzees.' Proceedings of the first PACE (People Against Chimpanzee Experiments) Conference on the use of chimpanzees in biomedical research. In: Primate Eye, 62, 30-34.

Murray, L. E. (1996). Personality and individual differences in captive African apes. Primate Eye, 59, 40-41.

Law, L. E., & Lock, A. J. (1994). Do gorillas recognize themselves on television? In: S.T. Parker R.W. Mitchell & M.L. Boccia (Eds). Self-awareness in animals and humans: Developmental perspectives. pp.308-312. Cambridge University Press.